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Content №5-2012

TCAM — from Ipv4 to IPv6

Baginyan A.S., electrical engineer 1 category, baginyan@tmpk.net

Dolbilov A.G., Software Engineer Category 1, dolbilov@jinr.ru, Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna


The articledeals with the problems of modern routing of the Internet. The problems of sampling route networks, use of security policies and service quality of the information. A separate section is devoted to examples of the properties of network masks to reduce the size of routing tables. Various options for the layout of memory address, the comparison between routing protocol Ipv4 and Ipv6, as well as explore options of software and hardware routing. Given the advantages and problems of implementation of IPv6.


KeywordsTCAM, Ipv4, Ipv6, mask, CAM, lookup, router.


1. Ravikumar V.C., Rabi N.“TCAM architecture for ip lookup using prefix properties”, Published by the IEEE Computer Society, april-march 2004.

2. V. Srinivasan and G. Varghese, “Fast Address Lookups Using Controlled Prefix Expansion,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 17, no. 1, Oct. 1999, pp. 1-40.

3. R. Panigrahy and S. Sharma, “Reducing TCAM Power Consumption and Increasing Throughput,” Proc. 10th Symp. High_Performance Interconnects (HOTI 02), IEEE CS Press, 2002, pр. 107-112.

4. H. Liu, “Routing Table Compaction in Ternary CAM,” IEEE Micro, Jan._Feb. 2002, vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 58-64.

5. D. Shah and P. Gupta, “Fast Updating Algorithms for TCAMs,” IEEE Micro, vol. 21, No. 1, Jan._Feb. 2001, pp. 36-47.

6. Yi-Ting Fang, Tzung-Chian Huang, Pi-Chung Wang “Ternary CAM Compaction For IP Address Lookup”, Department of Computer Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2008.

7. Greg Ferro “TCAM — A Deeper Look and the Impact of IPv6”, 26/01/2011, etherealmind.com/tcam_detail_review.

8. “Content-addressable memory”, wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content-addressable_memory#Ternary_CAMs 25/05/2012.

9. Karl Etzel “Answering IPv6 Lookup Challenges”, 10/04/2012, eetimes.com/design/programmable_logic/4009328/Answering_IPv6_Lookup_Challenges_Part_1.

10. “Internet-protocol 6 (IPv6)”, www.ing_ipv6.ru/ 23/03/2012.

Georouting protocols of mobile networks


Prozorov D.E., prozorov.de@gmail.com

Metelev A.P., metap@inbox.ru

Chistyakov A.V., ach.vsu@gmail.com

Romanov S. V., romanov@niisvt.kirov.ru

Recently heightened interest in MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks) — mobile networks and systems of data transmission is observed. MANET have a number of advantages before traditional hierarchical communication networks with the allocated operating centers: the decentralized (distributed) management allowing a network to adapt for change of topology of a network, possibility of the organization of communication between the subscribers being on considerable removal from each other without increase in capacity of transmitters, stability to refusals of separate knots. Protocols of georouting mobile communication networks are briefly described. The main strategy of increase efficiency of protocols of georouting are allocated.


Keywords: Glonass/GPS; IP network; mobile network; routing protocol.


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2. V.M. Vinokourov.Routing inWireless Mobile Ad hoc-networks / V.M. Vinokourov, etc. // Reports TUSUR. 2010, No 2 (22), part 1. Pp. 288-292.

3. Identifying the types of equipment and systems to be equipped with satellite navigation GLONASS or GLONASS/GPS // URL: http://minsvyaz.ru/ru/doc/?id_4=618.

4. Boukerche, A. Algorithms and protocols for wireless, mobile ad hoc networks / A. Boukerche // New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009. 495 p.

5. Mauve, M. A Survey on Position-based Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks / M. Mauve, J. Widmer, and H. Hartenstein // IEEE Network Magazine. 2001. Vol. 15, No6. Pр. 30-39.

6. Xu, Y. Geography_informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing / Y. Xu, J. S. Heidemann, D. Estrin //In Proceedings of ACM MobiCom, 2001. Pр. 70-84.

7. Karp, B. Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks / B. Karp, H. T. Kung // In Proceedings of the 6-th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom ’00). ACM Press, New York, 2000. Pр. 243-254.

8. Ko, Y. Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks / Y. Ko, N. Vaidya // In Proceedings of the ACM MOBICOM. 1998. Pр. 66-75.

9. Ko, Y. Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks /Y. Ko, N. Vaidya, // Wireless Networks. 2000. Vol.6, No4. Pр. 307-321.

10. Basagni, S. A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (DREAM) / Basagni, S. [et al.] // In Proceedings of the ACM MOBICOM. 1998. Pр. 76-84.

11. Li, J. Laker, Location aided knowledge extraction routing for mobile ad hoc networks / J. Li, and P. Mohapatra // In Proceedings of the IEEE WCNC, 2003. Pр. 1180-1184.

12. Boato, G. MORA: A movement-based routing algorithm for vehicle ad hoc networks / G. Boato and F. Granelli // In Proceedings of the International Conference on Distributed Multimedia Systems (DMS). 2004. Pр. 171-174.

13. Tonghong, L. A Position_Based Routing Protocol for Metropolitan Bus Networks / L. Tonghong, S.K. Hazra, W. Seah // Proc. of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference 2005. Pр. 42-50.

14. S. Corson. Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations / S. Corson., J. Macker // URL: tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2501.

Simulation modeling of inter_cell movement and tracking of local congestion in communication systems with mobile objects


Shcuchkin V.M., postgraduate student of Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, vlad.sh86@yandex.ru


The simulation model of inter-cell movements of users of mobile radio communication network is developed in this paper. That allows one to simulate the behavior of mobile subscribers in the real-time. Presence of two types of subscribers is taken into account: being in the mode of handover (HO), and subscribers in the passive state (OR). A programming language GPSS (General Purpose Simulation System — general-purpose modeling system) is used as the simulation environment for the simulation of various systems, primarily queuing systems. Simultaneously with the modeling and the collection of information about intra-cell movements of subscribers in this model are implemented algorithms of calculation of obtained samples in order to predict local overloads in the selected cell in real time. As an example of the algorithm we present simulation results for macro-cell. Synthesized programming model can be used in mobile radio networks for the prediction of congestion and optimization parameters. Computation part of the resulting algorithm can be exported to virtually any programming environment and used as a software product in the operators OSS system. Intelligent systems of this class are part of the SON (Self Optimizing Network) concept developed by a consortium of 3GPP.


1. Shorin O.A., Shchuchkin V.M. Use of intellectual aerials in systems of mobile communication for decrease in overloads // Works MAI, 2012. No. 53.

2. Shorin O.A. Methods of optimum distribution of a time-and-frequency resource in systems of a mobile radio communication. M.: MTUCI., 2005. 351 p.

3. Demyanov A.I. An assessment of parameters of jumps of loading in cellular networks of mobile communication // Telecommunication, 2002. No.1. Pp. 33-36.

4. Jeiks U.K. Communication with mobile objects in a range of the microwave oven. M.: Svyaz, 1979. 520 p.

5. Alekhin Yu.N. Remote control by the provision of a beam in panel KATHREIN aerials // Mobile systems, 2003. No. 3. Pp. 62-66.

6. www.comba_telecom.com/Prd_Channel.aspx?ClassID=21 // 15.05.2012.

7. www.amphenol_jaybeam.com/remote_electrical_tilt_technology.php // 15.05.2012.

8. 3GPP TS 25.463 UTRAN Iuant interface: Remote Electrical Tilting (RET) antennas Application Part (RETAP) signaling.

Evaluation and minimizationof losses noise detector for inaccuracy manipulation speed telegraph signal


Rusanov V.E., rvvred52@rambler.ru


Work is devoted to research of stability of algorithm of detection of the quasidetermined signal to discrepancy of an aprioristic task of its parameters. As object of research the algorithm of calculation of the relation of credibility for a signal of phase telegraphy was considered.


1. Tikhonov V. I., Kyl’man N.K. Nonlinear filtration and quasicoherent reception of signals. M: Sov. radio, 1975. 704 p.

2. Levin B.R. Theoretical bases of statistical radio engineering. — M: Sov. Radio, 1969. 752 p.

3. Rusanov V.E. An assessment and minimization of losses of a noise stability in the conditions of discrepancy of an aprioristic task of parameters of signals // T-Comm — Telecommunications and transport, No. 2, 2012. Pp. 63-65.

The analysis of color and multispectral television component signals’ formation characteristics


Bezrukov V.N., MTUCI, Moscow


The real characteristics of TV component signals’ color filters are usually not identical in the range (in the direction) of wavelengths both in form and on the area. Extension of the color filter characteristics leads to the significant saturation decrease in color TV images. Level decrease and narrowing – to component signal’s intensity losses, thus it also results in TV image quality decrease due to the noise visibility increase. The complex of the color filters’ and their corresponding primary color component signals’ spectral characteristics do actually reflects the result of discrete-integral TV control of power estimation distribution depending on the image signal’s every element’s wavelength, thus it determines quality of the primary color components when reproduced. That means that the development of methodology for carrying out the relative color filter characteristics’ quality estimation allows either to choose a variant from the implemented beforehand excessive in number set of real color filters or to provide the required changes of color filters’ form parameters when developing them. On the other hand it is advisable to consider changes in the active color filters’ characteristics caused by mutual processing the complex of received TV signal primary color component signals. Using the particular set of color filters’ characteristics the basic steps (methodology) to perform relative assessment of processing the color filters’ characteristics based on comparison the corresponding specters is described in this article. The influence degree of the obtained primary color components signals on the efficiency of video monitoring is shown. The corresponding algorithm of the analysis processing is developed and the required equations are obtained. The carried out calculation results are presented.


1. Bezrukov V.N. Development and application of the elements of the theory of image signal conversion systems applied to TV. The Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Science. Moscow: MTUCI, 1996. Pp.18-21.

2. Bezrukov V.N. Limited range of video information signals in TV // T-Comm – Telecommunications and Transport, 2011. No 9. Pp.17-20.

3. Nowakowski S.V. The color on the TV screen of television kolometrii. M.: Radio I Svyaz, 1997. 213 p.

4Uzilevsky V.A.Transmission, processing and reproduction of color images. M.: Radio I Svyaz, 1997.168.

Application of concealment schemes given to images of the various formats


Efimushkina T.V., Technological university of Tampere, tatiana.efimushkina@tut.fi

Egiazaryan K., Technological university of Tampere, karen.egiazarian@tut.fi


With development of information technologies, especially in Internet area, mobile connections and multimedia applications, there are the serious problems connected with insufficient ensuring of information protection, such as hacking, duplication of data and ill-intentioned use of digital information. Schemes of concealment of data (data hiding) were entered for the solution of data growing problems. Digital watermarks (TsVZ) (watermark) take root into data (audio, the image or video a signal) forming the “marked” signal, being imperceptible, or indistinguishable by visual criteria from an initial signal. Methods of drawing of TsVZ can be subdivided on spatial, working directly with pixels, and frequency, being applied after carrying out some transformation. Moreover, schemes assuming possible extraction both the confidential message, and an initial signal, are called as reversible. Irreversible schemes allow to take only TsVZ. Reversible schemes of spatial concealment of the data, based on approaches of difference expansion and histogram shifting, respectively are offered and investigated.


Keywords: difference expansion, histogram shifting, field of Galua, JPEG.


1. T. Efimushkina and K. Egiazarian. High-capacity reversible q-ry data hiding with location map-free capability. Proc. of International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention, 2011.

2. T. Efimushkina and K. Egiazarian. Reversible q-ary watermarking with controllable prediction error and location map-free capability. Proc. SPIE 8303, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 2012.

3. J. Tian. Reversible Data Embedding Using a Difference Expansion. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video technology, 2003.

4. M. Fallahpour. Reversible image data hiding based on gradient adjusted prediction. IECIE Electronic Express, 2008.

5. G. Xuan, Q. Yao, Q. C. Yang, J. Gao, P. Chai, Y. Shi, and Z. Ni. Lossless data hiding using histogram shifting method based on integer wavelets. In International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, 2006.

6. Y. Hu, H._K. Lee, K. Chen and J. Li. DE-based reversible data hiding using two embedding directions. IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, 2008.

7. G. Xuan, Y._Q. Shi, and Z. Ni. Reversible data hiding for JPEG images based on histogram pairs. Proc. of ICIAR 2007, 2007.

8. N. Johnson, and S. Jajodia. Steganalysis of images created using current steganography software. In Proc. of information Hiding Workshop, 1998.

9. U. Waterloo image database [Online]. http://links.uwaterloo.ca/Repository.html.




G.M. Aristarkhov, doctor technical science (DFhil), professor, Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, g.aristarkhov2010@yandex.ru; A.V. Arsenin, military man, Moscow, el_dorado@yandex.ru; O.V. Arinin, graduate student, Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, bishounen99@gmail.com


Researched new base circuits of ultra miniature microwave filters on the Y sections. Subject to parameter elements, this circuits provide high selectivity at the expense of several transmission zeros. Researched Y-sections frequency response curves and represent adequate classification of the new base circuits appropriate their frequency characteristic. In the second part of the article Y_sections with additional routes are given.


Keywords: ultra miniature, high selectivity, microwave filter, Y-section, transmission zero, distribution-lumped, base circuit.


1. AristarkhovG.M., Arsenin A.V., Arinin O.V. Schematic basis miniaturized highly selective microwave filters based Y-links // T-Comm – Telecommunications and Transport, 2012. No 4. Pp. 42-45.

2. AristarkhovG.M., Arsenin A.V. Highly selective filters for microwave resonators ultrashort length with additional routes of energy / / Proceedings RNTORES them. Popov. M., 2008. Pp. 117-122.

3. AristarkhovG.M. Alekseev A.N. Communications operating parameters symmetric reactance two // Radiotekhnica I electronika, 1990. V.35. No 3. Pp. 660-664.

Analyses of Architecture and Features Hospitals Multimedia Contact-Centers


Dokychaev V.A., MTUCI, Moscow, V_Dokuchaev@tlsoft.msk.ru

Yuvchenko О.N., MTUCI, Moscow, olgayuvchenko@gmail.com


One of important social spheres and the priority direction of modernization within the project “Information society” is the medicine where for permission of a number of problems the hardwaresoftware decisions which have received the name “Multimedia Contact Center” (MKTs) can become the powerful tool. The urgency of it is supported with the following requirements of a state program (GP) “Information society” (2011-2020): improvement of quality of medical care and

social protection the population on the basis of IKT; introduction of new methods of rendering of medical care to the population, and also remote service of patients; establishment of uniform approaches to transition to rendering of services in electronic form, namely, transition to maintaining history diseases in electronic form, standardization of social cards and other forms; stimulation of application by the organizations and citizens of information and telecommunication technologies.


Keywords: multimedia contact center, medical institution, information society, the analysis of decisions for contact centers, requirements to contact centers.


1. Strategy of development of information society in the Russian Federation, from February 7, 2008, No. Pr-212.

2. State program of the Russian Federation “Information society” (2011-2020)” approved as the order of the Government of the Russian Federation from October 20, 2010. No. of 1815.

3. Roslyakov A.V., Samsonov M.Yu., Shibayeva I.V. Call Centre. M: Ako-Trendz, 2002. 272 p.

4. The concept of creation of uniform state information system in the health care sphere. The annex to the order of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Development of Russia from April 28, 2011, No. 364.

5. Requirements to MIS (No. SBR1009140314_02_2.20 standard) from 25.10.2010.


Zelmanov Samuel Solomonovitch, Moscow Technical University of Communication and Informatics (Volgo-Vyatskiy Branch), zelmanss@yandex.ru


The classical resonance theory in the linear stationary dynamic system which was suggested in the first middle of the 20-thcentury by the Russian Academicians L.N. Papalecsy which was adapted to the single resonator with concept little losses, was not developed in the subsequent years. At this time the resonance systems with many freedom degrees, essential losses and with their own processes of non harmonic type were appeared, but the classic resonance theory does not spread to them and now the frequency is not a single resonance parameter. Now the theory of the spectral resonance and the resonance of a signal from were suggested. On the base o f the space theory and especially with use of functional sobolev’s space of input signals we receive the possibility of the generalization of the frequency resonance conception for wider class of the linear stationary dynamic systems with external description which are characterized by extreme reaction on the signals as harmonic and non harmonic types. The classification of the resonance types for the transfer functions of the systems which are differed according to the number of the variable quantity.


Кeywords: behaviour model, internal behaviour, external behaviour, multyparametric resonance, form resonance.


1. Zelmanov, S.S. Rezonans in linear stationary system with exponential own processes//YuFU News. Technical science. Taganrog: TTI YuFU, 2010. 12 (113). Pp.116-125.

2. Zelmanov, S.S. Kritery of a resonance and the resonant phenomena in the generalized two-pole. Taganrog: Publishing house of TTI of News of YuFU. Technical science. Thematic release. “Computer and information technologies”. 2009, No. 2.

3. Zelmanov, S.S. Issledovaniye of the resonance phenomenon in the chain RC line // T-Comm — Telecommunications and transport, No. 8, 2009.

4. Papaleksi, N.D. Evolyutsiya of concept of a resonance // Successes of physical sciences, 1947. V.31.

5. Zelmanov, S.S. Study of the phenomenon of a resonance of a form of a signal in the coordinated filter // Telecommunication, 2011, No. 1.

Influence of a burning out effect of spectral strengthening holes in the erbium amplifier on spectrum disbalance in DWDM signal


Gavrilin D.A., student of the Moscow State University; Blind M.A., head of department of JSC T8;

Kuznetsov D.M., engineer of JSC T8; Belsky S.A., student MGUPI; Sachalin E.A., engineer of JSC T8


Dependence of spectrum disbalance weakening on disbalance magnitude, interval between channels and channels quantity in DWDM signal amplified by EDFA was experimentally measured. Demonstrated that spectrum disbalance of output signal can be weakened by 25% relatively to spectrum disbalance of input signal. Spectrum disbalance weakening decreased through increasing of DWDM channels quantity.


1. Pilipetskii A.N. et al. Spectral hole-burning in long-haul WDM transmission // OFC 2004, Paper FM3, vol. 2, pp. 23-27 (2004).

2. Pilipetskii A.N. et al. Spectral hole burning simulation and experimental verification in long-haul WDM systems

// OFC 2003, Paper ThW2, vol. 2, pp. 577-578 (2003).

3. M. Bolshtyansky, “Spectral Hole Burning in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” JLT, Vol. 21 (4), pp. 1032_1038 (2003).

4. Nany O E., Treshchikov V.N. The Russian equipment of DWDM with channel speed of 40 G and 100 G //

Vestnik Svyazi, 2011. No. 4. Pp. 52-58.

5. Gurkin N.V., etc. Characteristics of one-flying system DWDM with channels of 40 Gbit / with DPSK in a grid o f 50 GHz // Electrosvyaz. No. 1, 2012.

6. Redyuk A.A., etc. Mathematical modeling of an experimental prototype the high-speed communication lines on the basis of a differential phase format of modulation without return to zero // Quantum electronics, 2011. V.41, No. 10. Pp. 929-933.

7. Nany O.E., etc. Characteristics of multiflying system DWDM with channels of 40 Gbit / with with DPSK in a grid of 50 GHz // Electrosvyaz. No. 6, 2012, in the press.

8. Gurkin N.V., etc. DWDM systems of new generation // Vestnik Svyazi. No. 5, 2012. Pp. 39-40.

Research of a self-similar traffic with FRACTAN package use

Kireeva N.V., MSIB PGUTI; Buranova M.A., MSIB PGUTI


The review of some modern achievements in the field of a self-similar teletraffic is made, including mathematical definition of self-similar casual process, and also its property and feature is made. Self-similarity of a traffic is shown in slower decrease of values of autocorrelation function in comparison with processes for which short-term dependence, but also, in nature of distribution of a random variable of intervals between receipts of packages takes place. The reasons on which puasson models of a traffic don’t reflect a real picture of the events in a network are considered, therefore, don’t give exact forecasts of behavior of a telecommunication traffic and assessment of indicators of quality of its service. The existing condition in the field of modeling and forecasting of behavior of a self-similar telecommunication traffic, and methods of design of multiservice networks is analysed. Research of a traffic of IP-telephony which have been removed on a real network, which is carried out it was processed with Fractan program use. Hurst’s indicator and correlation dimension of a traffic is defined. On the basis of the given results the conclusion is drawn on degree of self-similarity of a studied traffic.


Keywords: self-similarity of a traffic, Hurst’s parameter, long-term dependence, heavy distributions, methods modeling.


1. Neumann V.I. The new direction in the teletraffic theory // Electrosvyaz, 1988, No. 7, pp. 27-30.

2. Shelukhin O.I., Tenyakishev A.M., Osin A.V. Fraktal aspens processes in telecommunications. The monograph / Under the editor ship of Shelukhin. M.: Radiotehnika, 2003. 480 p.

3. Kostromitsky A.I., Volotka V.S. Approaches to modeling of a self-similar traffic // the East European magazine of front lines technologies, 2010. 4/7 (46). pp. 46-49.

4. Gorodetsky A.Ya., Zaborovsky V.S. Informatika. Fractal processes in computer networks. Studies. grant. SpbGTU, 2000. 102 p.

Determination of the maximum length of an optical cable at its tightening in the telephone sewerage from concrete


Kolesnikov V.A., МТUCI; Zubilevich A.L., МТUCI


The maximum length of an optical cable tightened for one end in the cable telephone sewerage from concrete blocks on a rectilinear site and on a site of the sewerage having bends under various corners is defined, and also at an inhaling of three OK in the cable telephone sewerage from concrete on a rectilinear site.


1. Andreev V.A., Burdin V.A. Construction and technical operation of fiber-optical communication lines. — M: Radio i svyaz, 1995. — 240 p.

Features of design of the narrow-band temperaturestable filters on the superficial acoustic waves on resonators from the cross-section acoustic communication


Orlov V.S., Schwarz A.L., Shvets V.B.


A typical value ofthe relative bandwidth temperaturestable filters based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) using cross coupled resonators (PTRF) on quartz substrates is usually from BW = 0,05 to 0,1%. The reasons that limit the bandwidth, and describe some of the design features PTRF with higher bandwidth BW = (0,15-0,3)%, on quartz. It is shown that it is possible to extend the maximum bandwidth to BW = (1,35%) to highly selective filters with combined transverse acoustoelectric coupling between the resonators based on a new, thermally stable material as lithium tetraborate (LBO). The results of experimental studies illustrate the characteristics of the four types of PTRF 130 MHz bandwidth BW = 0,054%, 868 MHz with a bandwidth BW = 0,18%, 248 MHz with a bandwidth BW = 0,16%. These filters are fabricated on quartz substrates cut yxl/33, 3 deg. Filter at 71 MHz with a bandwidth BW = 0,3% was made by LBO cut zyx/45 degrees.


Keywords: temperaturestable filters, surface acoustic wave, cross-coupled resonators.


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